Document Type



attitude consistency, attitude ambivalence, exercise promotion, Chinese students

Publication Date



Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine middle and high school students’ cognitive and affective attitude and their cognitive-affective attitudinal structures toward physical education (PE). The effects of cognitive and affective attitude and attitudinal structures on physical activity (PA) in PE and outside of school were also examined. Methods: 1773 Chinese middle and high-school students participated in this study. SEM, Chi-square test, ANOVAs, and Contingency tables were adopted to address the research questions. Results: The results showed that most students (>90%) were holding positive cognitive and affective attitude toward PE. Students’ affective attitude significantly influences their PA in PE and outside of school. Most students were holding the positive cognitive-positive negative attitudinal structure toward PE. Conclusions: All these findings lay important foundations for future theoretical advancement about attitude toward PE and provide guidance for PE teachers on attitude intervention and PA promotion.