Document Type



physical Fitness, primary and middle schools, curriculum, standards

Publication Date



Purpose: Developing students’ overall competencies and physical health is an important goal of physical education and health curriculum (PEHC). PEHC Standards for Compulsory Education (2022) and PEHC Standards for Senior High Schools (2017) both designate Physical Fitness as a required course to achieve this goal. To date, it’s not clear about how the course has been implemented and its effectiveness. Therefore, this study was to identify problems associated with teaching Physical Fitness courses in primary and middle schools in China and to propose strategies for an improved implementation. Methods: First, the literature from CNKI, East China Normal University Library was extensively collected and analyzed. Second, to learn about the current status of Physical Fitness teaching in the primary and middle schools, experts in physical education and Physical Fitness teaching were interviewed. Results: The problems of Physical Fitness teaching in some primary and middle schools are as follows: (1) the course only focuses on the development of students’ motor abilities, ignoring healthy behavior and sportsmanship; (2) the course only contains skill explanation and demonstration, failing to teach principles, knowledge and methods of physical fitness development; (3) some Physical Fitness courses lack scientific and systematic implementation; (4) a number of physical education teachers lack the knowledges and abilities to teach the course; and (5) limited instructional resources, including lack of textbooks, for teachers to prepare lessons. Conclusion: To solve the problems identified above, we propose the following strategies: (1) The Physical Fitness course should focus on developing students’ overall competencies; (2) teachers include explanations of general principles, knowledge and methods for physical fitness development; (3) develop scientific and systematic Physical Fitness course content and methods; (4) increase physical education teachers’ knowledge and abilities of teaching Physical Fitness course; and (5) write textbooks suitable for the Physical Fitness course in the primary and middle schools.