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The purpose of this study was to realize the cognition and practice of sports education concepts from all walks of life in China, and eliminate the barriers of traditional systems and mechanisms, it will point out the direction for the training of Chinese competitive sports reserve talents to get out of the predicament and move towards high-quality development. The cultivation of reserve talents for competitive sports in China has gone through three stages: “combination of sports and education,” “combination of education and sports,” and “integration of sports and education.” Through analysis, it is concluded that the problems encountered by high-level sports teams in Chinese colleges and universities in the process of talent training. First, the sports department mainly cultivated reserve talents in the past, and the evaluation of athletes paid more attention to medals and honors. However, the main focus of the work of the education department is to enhance the physical fitness of the students and promote the physical and mental health of the students. Secondly, the lack of investment in training by universities leads to low coaching level and ability of coaches, which is the main factor restricting the training of athletes. Finally, in actual campus life, athletes spend most of their time in daily competitions and training, and their cultural performance is not good, which leads to their inability to truly master the cultural knowledge of their chosen major during their studies, it is challenging to choose a career as an elite in related industries after graduation. First, the main body of implementing the training of competitive sports talents in the new era in the sports department and the education department. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the coordination, communication and cooperation between the two departments to realize the sharing and sharing of resources between them. Secondly, universities should provide athletes with diversified teaching projects and practice forms. The teachers’ team is divided into two categories: physical education teachers and physical education coaches. Teachers are responsible for daily classroom teaching work to achieve the goal of coordinated development of physical exercise and cultural learning. The coach is responsible for sports training, through scientific and systematic training to enable students to reach a specific level of competition. Finally, universities should adopt learning planning guidance for athletes to help them complete their learning tasks, improve their cultural literacy, and enable them to master sports skills without delaying their normal study life.