Chinese Nationwide System, American Association System, comparative analysis


China and the United States, both in the first-tier in competitive sports worldwide, have different management and administrative systems. China employs the Nationwide System, in which the government has power to allocate resources from all dimensions to promote athletic sports. The government-based Chinese Nationwide System is led by government and mainly focuses on micro-management. In comparison, the social-led association system used in US is based on the macroeconomic regulation with indirect involvement of government. A comparative analysis of the Chinese Nationwide System and the American Association System would contribute to exploring their successful experience in competitive sports. This study deeply compared and analyzed the Chinese Nationwide System and the American Association System. We revealed the advantages and disadvantages of these two systems respectively, providing valuable information for the development of competitive sports. The present research employed the methods of literature review and comparative analysis to compare the differences of Chinese Nationwide System and the American Association System. Books and papers were searched through the library and CNKI. Literature studies concerning the Chinese Nationwide System, American Association System and the comparison of the two systems were sorted out and analyzed. Two systems were comparative analyzed concerning in formation background, institutional setup and operational mechanism. The results showed that these two systems varied in management subjects, policy formulation, training system, competitive system, selection system, funding sources, and incentive guarantee mechanisms. The establishment and implementation of the both management systems are in coincidence with the local conditions and promote the development of their national competitive sport.