sociocultural factors, self-determination, value, goal orientation, interest


Researchers have investigated whether or not motivational constructs that originated primarily through Western beliefs could be applied or generalized to different cultural contexts. A number of theoretical frameworks have received cross-cultural attention but findings remain inconclusive. The purpose of this study is to synthesize the characteristics of current cross-cultural studies of motivation in physical education. The initial search identified 380 articles from seven databases and 19 studies were included after removing duplication and screening against eligibility. The syntheses support the generalizability of motivational constructs, but reveal that the magnitudes of motivation and the associations between motivation and educational outcomes are varied significantly across culture. Students with collectivist beliefs in Eastern countries are more likely to initiate their perceptions of autonomy support from authority figures such as parents and teachers, demonstrate a lack of internal consistency of introjected and external regulation, and differentiate effort from ability, than their Western counterparts. With globalization and increasing diversity, it is important to enhance the awareness and understanding of motivational characteristics from a social-cultural perspective. We suggest that future study consider construct equivalence of motivation and comparability of environment and context across culture to advance the quality in the field.