active schools, comprehensive school physical activity programs, teacher efficacy, classroom teachers, classroom activity breaks, brain breaks


The overall aim for this study was to create and validate an instrument that helps researchers measure and better understand classroom teachers’ efficacy toward providing physical activity throughout the school day. The development of the Teacher Efficacy Toward Providing Physical Activity in the Classroom Scale (TETPPACS) occurred in two phases. First, in study one, after item development and face validity review, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted with pilot data (N = 320) to discover the factor structure of the TETPPACS. Second, with a follow-up sample (N = 192), a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to confirm the factor structure and measurement quality of the instrument. The final bi-factor model with three efficacy-specific constructs and the general efficacy construct resulted in an acceptable fitting two-group configural model across elementary and high school teachers ( =363.791; CFI=.91; TLI=.87; SRMR=.066; RMSEA=.081). The results of this study suggest the new TETPPACS is a valid and reliable instrument to measure classroom teacher’s efficacy toward providing physical activity during the school day. This instrument can help researchers further investigate how teacher efficacy relates to implementation and facilitation of physical activity experiences throughout the school day.