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Publication Date


Date of Final Oral Examination (Defense)


Type of Culminating Activity

Dissertation - Boise State University Access Only

Degree Title

Doctor of Education in Curriculum and Instruction


Curriculum, Instruction, and Foundational Studies

Major Advisor

Keith W. Thiede, Ph.D.


Kathleen Budge, Ed.D.


Kelly Cross, Ed.D.


Heather Williams, Ph.D.


The Principal Sense of Efficacy Scale (PSES) survey developed by Tschannen-Moran and Gareis (2004) is the foundational research tool for measuring principal efficacy. The PSES had not been modified since 2004. Eight questions were added to include technology use and societal changes occurring in the past decade, integrating the effects of recent computer technology and issues related to low-income families. After validation and checking for reliability of the instrument, the Modified-PSES survey was distributed electronically to Idaho elementary and secondary principals. The Modified-PSES survey results for each principal were correlated specifically with the 2013 Idaho Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) scores results for his or her school. The outcome expectation was to provide a more meaningful self-assessment tool for measuring contemporary principals’ self-efficacy.