Integrative Body–Mind–Spirit (I-BMS) Practices for Schizophrenia: An Outcome Literature Review on Randomized Controlled Trials

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Prior reviews show that certain complementary and alternative practices are promising for patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to review the outcome literature on intervention studies using integrative body–mind–spirit (I-BMS) practices on schizophrenia. This is an outcome literature review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on I-BMS practices from 2004 to 2016. The review used a modified Delphi List to assess methodological rigor and the California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse Scientifc Rating Scale to evaluate the level of research support for each identified I-BMS practice. This review identified 13 RCTs of I-BMS practices, including mindfulness interventions (5), yoga (3), tai-chi (2), and relaxation (3). I-BMS practices were effective with medium to large effect sizes for alleviating symptoms, decreasing anxiety and stress, improving insight and mindfulness, subjective well-being and social/occupational functioning, as well as decreasing the frequency and duration of re-hospitalization. This review expands the knowledge base of treatment effectiveness pertaining to patients with schizophrenia.