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We apply Kingdon's multiple streams framework (MSF) to policy implementation to reflect a nested process separate from but interdependent with policymaking. Then, we generate a hypothesis concerning the conditional nature of problems, policies, and politics stream impacts on policy implementation. We test our hypotheses with state‐level implementation of the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, using a pooled data set of 10 years of toxic releases data. Findings suggest an important interaction occurs among problems, policies, and politics during the policy implementation process. More specifically, when any of the three is held at median levels, only marginal differences in outputs occur; however, when all three are increased to extreme levels, substantive differences emerge. Conclusions connect policy implementation to larger issues of MSF theoretical development and suggest implications for governance.

Copyright Statement

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article:

Fowler, L. (2019). Problems, Politics, and Policy Streams in Policy Implementation. Governance, 32(3), 403-420.

which has been published in final form at doi: 10.1111/gove.12382. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.