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This study explored effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and home affordances on motor, language, and cognitive development in children with motor delays; it also tested whether SES and home affordances moderate the effect of the novel START-Play early intervention or motor delay severity on development. Participants were 112 children (64 males, 36.6% low SES) with motor delays tested longitudinally across 12 months (baseline age: Mean = 10.80, SD = 2.59 months). The results showed that more advanced motor, language, and cognitive development of children with motor delays is associated with high SES and enriched home affordances. Importantly, SES and home affordances moderated the effect of both intervention and motor delay severity on children's development. These results suggest that the effectiveness of early intervention programs may be enhanced and the negative impact of risk factors (i.e., motor delays) on children's global development could be considerably alleviated through environmental supports that increase SES and home affordances.

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This is an author-produced, peer-reviewed version of this article. © 2023, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 International license. The final, definitive version of this document can be found online at Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,

Available for download on Tuesday, July 01, 2025