Sex Differences in Masculine Depression: Externalizing Symptoms as a Primary Feature of Depression in Men

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Gender role socialization significantly affects how many men and women think, feel, and behave, which subsequently affects their depressive symptom presentation. This study involved an examination of symptoms of masculine depression in men and women college students (n = 548) using the recently developed Masculine Depression Scale (MDS). Analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to test for significant differences between men’s and women’s scale and subscale scores on the MDS. Overall, the results indicated that men endorsed significantly more externalizing symptoms than women. Additional clinical and research implications, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are also addressed.