Document Type


Publication Date



Over 25% of adult Americans suffer from a mental disorder each year, with depression and anxiety being some of the most commonly reported issues. Researchers estimate that between 10% and 50% of adult Americans will suffer from a depressive episode at some point in their life, and cognitive theorists argue that mental states, including disorders, are generated and maintained by personal, subjective beliefs, and that events can only be appropriately labeled by the individual experiencing them. Thus, cognitive theorists suggest a strong link between self-talk (ST) and behavior and note that the automatic use of ST is associated with disordered thinking. Researchers further suggest ST may differ between those suffering from anxiety and those suffering from depression. However, studies have yet to examine whether ST in men suffering from depression or anxiety differs from that of women. This study sought to address this gap in the literature; gender differences in the use of anxious ST and a mediation of gender differences by ST were identified.

Copyright Statement

This is an author-produced, peer-reviewed version of this article. The final, definitive version of this document can be found online at VISTAS: Effective Counseling Interventions, Tools, and Techniques, published by American Counseling Association. Copyright restrictions may apply.