Revision and Psychometric Testing of the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) Survey: Introducing the INE-R

Document Type


Publication Date



Background: Academic incivility is a serious challenge for nursing education, which needs to be empirically measured and fully addressed. Method: A convenience sample of nursing faculty and students from 20 schools of nursing in the United States participated in a mixed-methods study to test the psychometric properties of the Incivility in Nursing Education-Revised (INE-R) Survey. Results: A factor analysis and other reliability analyses support the use of the INE-R as a valid and reliable measurement of student and faculty perceptions of incivility in nursing education. Conclusion: The INE-R is a psychometrically sound instrument to measure faculty and student perceptions of incivility; to examine diff erences regarding levels of nursing education, program type, gender, age, and ethnicity; to compare perceptions of incivility between and among adjunct, clinical, teaching, and research faculty; and to conduct pre- and postassessments of the perceived levels of faculty and student incivility in nursing programs to inform evidence-based interventions.