Countervailing Forces Affecting Japanese Telework Behavior
A literature review of Japanese and American research reveals several countervailing forces affecting Japanese telework behavior. Cultural characteristics such as collectivism, power distance, long-term orientation, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and the need for face-to-face contact appear to negatively impact the amount of telework in Japan. Other negative influences include job design and legal limitations. New forces such as technology, commuting time, environmental needs, safety concerns, energy consumption, efficiency, productivity, societal changes, generational effects, supportive associations, company strategy, and governmental initiatives appear to increase Japanese telework. Though Japan had been slow in establishing telework in the 1990's, telework growth might be fast in the 2010's due to the new forces. Implications for future research are included.
Kaupins, Gundars and Usui, Kengo. (2008). "Countervailing Forces Affecting Japanese Telework Behavior". Journal of Business and Leadership, 4(2), 60-67.