Project-based learning (PjBL) is seeing increasing scholarly interest and pedagogical use in higher education, but instances of PjBL do not necessarily seek the same educational outcomes. Using the grounded theory method, the authors plot five courses in a PjBL program on a matrix of course design characteristics ranging from Fixed to Flexible and Individualistic to Cooperative. They describe four major variations of PjBL based on this matrix. Recognizing that PjBL courses vary in their use of student choice and student collaboration, the authors make recommendations for assessment researchers and for teachers wishing to develop new strategies that fit their institutional and disciplinary contexts.
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Son, Eun Hye and Penry, Tara. (2022). "Variations in Project-Based Course Design". Journal of Problem Based Learning in Higher Education, 10(1), 58-73. https://doi.org/10.54337/ojs.jpblhe.v10i1.6821