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Survey designers should be aware of response order effects associated with left-side selection bias, acquiescence bias, and satisficing. A sufficient amount of research has shown that descending-ordered response scales generate more positive responses from respondents than ascending-ordered scales. A simple solution to the inflated data obtained from descendingordered scales is to present response scales in ascending order. Otherwise, descending-ordered scales should be used with strategies for reducing response order effects.

Copyright Statement

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article:

Chyung, S.Y., Kennedy, M., & Campbell, I. (2018). Evidence‐Based Survey Design: The Use of Ascending or Descending Order of Likert‐Type Response Options. Performance Improvement, 57(9), 9-16.

which has been published in final form at doi: 10.1002/pfi.21800. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.