Bankers and Blue-Chippers: An Account of -er Formations in Present-Day English
The nominalizing -er suffix has been extremely productive throughout the history of English, and in Present-day English it has developed a wide range of base and referent types. Yet most formal linguistic treatments account satisfactorily for only a fraction of the types of -er nominals actually found. I propose a cognitive model which not only addresses the problems with verb-based forms that are encountered in other models, but includes an account of all the nonverb-based -er nominals as well.
Ryder, Mary Ellen. (1999). "Bankers and Blue-Chippers: An Account of -er Formations in Present-Day English". English Language and Linguistics, 3(2), 269-297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1360674399000246