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Many newly developing countries are growing rapidly. One example is India, currently the second most populous country in the world. According to the Indian Ministry of Urban Development, from 1981 to 2001, the population in six major Indian cities increased twofold while motor vehicles increased eightfold. Such rapid growth in vehicles without a comparable growth in transportation infrastructure leads to increasing traffic congestion. Cities in India are already considered congested today, and are going to be even more congested in the coming years since the rate of urbanization in India in 2006 was only 29% and is expected to grow to 41% by 2030 [1]. The corresponding rates for the world and Asia as a whole are projected to be 61% and 55%, respectively.

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This document was originally published in Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering. This work is provided under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Details regarding the use of this work can be found at: DOI:10.4172/2165-784X.1000e106.