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The regional multi-hazards risk assessment poses difficulties due to data access challenges, and the potential interactions between multi-hazards and social vulnerability. For better natural hazards risk perception and preparedness, it is important to study the nature-hazards risk distribution in different areas, specifically a major priority in the areas of high hazards level and social vulnerability. We propose a multi-hazards risk assessment method which considers social vulnerability into the analyzing and utilize machine learning-enabled models to solve this issue. The proposed methodology integrates three aspects as follows: (1) characterization and mapping of multi-hazards (Flooding, Wildfires, and Seismic) using five machine learning methods including Naïve Bayes (NB), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest (RF), and K-Means (KM); (2) evaluation of social vulnerability with a composite index tailored for the case-study area and using machine learning models for classification; (3) risk-based quantification of spatial interaction mechanisms between multi-hazards and social vulnerability. The results indicate that RF model performs best in both hazard-related and social vulnerability datasets. The most cities at multi-hazards risk account for 34.12% of total studied cities (covering 20.80% land). Additionally, high multi-hazards level and socially vulnerable cities account for 15.88% (covering 4.92% land). This study generates a multi-hazards risk map which show a wide variety of spatial patterns and a corresponding understanding of where regional high hazards potential and vulnerable areas are. It emphasizes an urgent need to implement information-based prioritization when natural hazards coming, and effective policy measures for reducing natural-hazards risks in future.


These authors contributed equally to this work: Tianjie Zhang and Donglei Wang.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.