Using specific components of three broad learning theories—cognitive, social-interactional, and behavioral—students in 3rd, 4th and 5th grade classrooms were given multiplication fact fluency instruction over a period of five weeks for 10-15 minutes each day. Two different approaches were utilized with two distinct groups of students for the purpose of comparing different approaches to fluency development. Results indicate that students using a strategy-based approach for fluency development by means of instructional tasks emphasizing social-interactional and cognitive theories (particularly Bruner’s theory of Modes of Representation) increased multiplication fact fluency, with a greater degree of consistency, than students using a drill-based approach emphasizing behavioristic techniques such as repetition and memorization.
This document was originally published by the Society for Science and Education, United Kingdom in Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. This work is provided under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. Details regarding the use of this work can be found at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/. doi: 10.14738/assrj.28.1396
Brendefur, Jonathan; Strother, S.; Thiede, K.; and Appleton, S.. (2015). "Developing Multiplication Fact Fluency". Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 2(8), 142-154.