The Immunomodulatory Roles of the Gut Microbiome in Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System: Multiple Sclerosis as a Model

Document Type


Publication Date



The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is a primary activation site for immune responses to infection and immunomodulation. Experimental evidence using animal disease models suggests that specific gut microbes significantly regulate inflammation and immunoregulatory pathways. Furthermore, recent clinical findings indicate that gut microbes’ composition, collectively named gut microbiota, is altered under disease state. This review focuses on the functional mechanisms by which gut microbes promote immunomodulatory responses that could be relevant in balancing inflammation associated with autoimmunity in the central nervous system. We also propose therapeutic interventions that target the composition of the gut microbiota as immunomodulatory mechanisms to control neuroinflammation.