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Nullomers are the shortest strings of absent amino acid (aa) sequences in a species or group of species. Primes are those nullomers that have not been detected in the genome of any species. 9S1R is a 5-aa peptide prime sequence attached to 5-arginine aa, used to treat triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in an in vivo mouse model. This unique peptide, administered with a trehalose carrier (9S1R-NulloPT), offers enhanced solubility and exhibits distinct anti-cancer effects against TNBC. In our study, we investigated the effect of 9S1R-NulloPT on tumor growth, metabolism, metastatic burden, tumor immune-microenvironment (TME), and transcriptome of aggressive mouse TNBC tumors. Notably, treated mice had smaller tumors in the initial phase of the treatment, as compared to untreated control, and diminished in vivo and ex vivo bioluminescence at later-stages - indicative of metabolically quiescent, dying tumors. The treatment also caused changes in TME with increased infiltration of immune cells and altered tumor transcriptome, with 365 upregulated genes and 710 downregulated genes. Consistent with in vitro data, downregulated genes were enriched in cellular metabolic processes (179), specifically mitochondrial TCA cycle/oxidative phosphorylation (44), and translation machinery/ribosome biogenesis (45). The upregulated genes were associated with the developmental (13), ECM organization (12) and focal adhesion pathways (7). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that 9S1R-NulloPT effectively reduced tumor growth during its initial phase, altering the TME and tumor transcriptome. The treatment induced mitochondrial pathology which led to a metabolic deceleration in tumors, aligning with in vitro observations.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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