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Osteoarthritis, a chronic, debilitating, and painful disease, is one of the leading causes of disability and socioeconomic burden, with an estimated 250 million people affected worldwide. Currently, there is no cure for osteoarthritis and treatments for joint disease require improvements. To address the challenge of improving cartilage repair and regeneration, three-dimensional (3D) printing for tissue engineering purposes has been developed. In this review, emerging technologies are presented with an overview of bioprinting, cartilage structure, current treatment options, decellularization, bioinks, and recent progress in the field of decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM)–bioink composites is discussed. The optimization of tissue engineering approaches using 3D-bioprinted biological scaffolds with dECM incorporated to create novel bioinks is an innovative strategy to promote cartilage repair and regeneration. Challenges and future directions that may lead to innovative improvements to currently available treatments for cartilage regeneration are presented.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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