Salmonellosis is among the most reported foodborne illnesses in the United States. The Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104 phage type, which is associated with multidrug-resistant disease in humans and animals, possesses an ADP-ribosylating toxin called ArtAB. Full-length artAB has been found on a number of broad-host-range non-typhoidal Salmonella species and serovars. ArtAB is also homologous to many AB5 toxins from diverse Gram-negative pathogens, including cholera toxin (CT) and pertussis toxin (PT), and may be involved in Salmonella pathogenesis, however, in vitro cellular toxicity of ArtAB has not been characterized. artAB was cloned into E. coli and initially isolated using a histidine tag (ArtABHIS) and nickel chromatography. ArtABHIS was found to bind to African green monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells using confocal microscopy and to interact with glycans present on fetuin and monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) using ELISA. Untagged, or native, holotoxin (ArtAB), and the pentameric receptor-binding subunit (ArtB) were purified from E. coli using fetuin and D-galactose affinity chromatography. ArtAB and ArtB metabolic and cytotoxic activities were determined using Vero and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) epithelial cells. Vero cells were more sensitive to ArtAB, however, incubation with both cell types revealed only partial cytotoxicity over 72 h, similar to that induced by CT. ArtAB induced a distinctive clustering phenotype on CHO cells over 72 h, similar to PT, and an elongated phenotype on Vero cells, similar to CT. The ArtB binding subunit alone also had a cytotoxic effect on CHO cells and induced morphological rounding. Results indicate that this toxin induces distinctive cellular outcomes. Continued biological characterization of ArtAB will advance efforts to prevent disease caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella.
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Overgaard, Elise; Morris, Brad; Mohammad Mousa, Omid; Price, Emily; Rodriguez, Adriana; Cufurovic, Leyla; . . . and Tinker, Juliette K. (2021). "Cellular Activity of Salmonella Typhimurium ArtAB Toxin and Its Receptor-Binding Subunit". Toxins, 13(9), 599. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090599