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The flipped classroom is being increasingly used in a wide range of instructional situations, yet little is known about how to facilitate it. The purpose of this study is to explore what types of learning activities in a flipped classroom are perceived to be the most effective in the achievement of desired course competencies. This case study specifically focused on the classroom lab sessions—the student-centered classroom—rather than online self-learning modules. Employing a case study using a mixed method approach, this research identifies effective pedagogy in facilitating a flipped classroom. Merrill’s (2002) first principles of instruction were used as a research framework. While results show that students engaged in learning activities of demonstration and application, they were barely exposed to higher-order learning activities. That leads to the conclusion that implementing problem-centered instructional activities, accompanied by desirable challenges, is highly advisable to foster deep engagement. Implications and future directions are discussed.

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This document was originally published in International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education by Canadian Network for Innovation in Education. This work is provided under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike license. Details regarding the use of this work can be found at: