Publication Date


Date of Final Oral Examination (Defense)


Type of Culminating Activity


Degree Title

Doctor of Education in Educational Technology


Educational Technology

Major Advisor

Brett Shelton, Ph.D.


Andy Hung, Ph.D.


Chareen Snelson, Ed.D.


The cornerstones of prehospital provider education include didactic instruction, psychomotor skills training, and hospital and ambulance clinical rotations. Increasing enrollment in healthcare education programs, limited clinical opportunities, and an increasingly technologically savvy student body are compelling educators to pursue supplementary techniques for teaching and learning. Although high fidelity simulators are becoming increasingly commonplace, other educational technologies are less widely adopted. Concomitantly, little research has been conducted exploring rationale and motivating factors for adoption and utilization of technology by EMS educators. Videos of authentic patient encounters recorded in clinical settings (VAPE) have the potential to provide students an opportunity to learn applicable content in a safe and controlled learning environment.

The integration of various educational video modalities into curriculum has been shown to increase student engagement and motivation in other settings but has not been studied within the prehospital education environment. This research is designed to investigate the behavioral intention and use of VAPE by EMS program faculty and staff.

A cross-sectional survey design of an extended version of the Technology Adoption Model will be employed to collect participant data. The TAM model was extended to include prior experience, technological competency, social norms, and characteristics of personality as determined by the Five Factor Model (FFM). Study participants included academic professionals who are currently working with or teaching for an accredited prehospital EMS education program and are involved in the design or instruction of curriculum. An online survey assessing attitude, prior experience, technological competency, social norms, and personality were sent to faculty and staff of currently accredited EMS education programs. Participants received the questionnaire electronically and had access to complete the survey at their convenience.

A total of 148 completed surveys were included in the analysis. The sample was largely male (71.1%) with an average age of 48.9 years, with a main personality trait of conscientiousness (31%). Factor analysis resulted in the inclusion of 7 factors; perceptions of utility, stability, agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, technological competency, and prior experience. A path analysis determined Factor 1: Perceptions of Utility had a strong positive impact on intention to use VAPE by EMS educators. Thematic analysis identified VAPE as a means to meet the educational needs of faculty and students and improve student learning. However, challenges to adoption were also identified and included cost, as well as administrative and technical support.