Publication Date


Date of Final Oral Examination (Defense)


Type of Culminating Activity


Degree Title

Doctor of Education in Curriculum and Instruction


Curriculum, Instruction, and Foundational Studies

Major Advisor

Heather P. Williams, Ph.D.

Major Advisor

Julianne A. Wenner, Ph.D.


Keith W. Theide, Ph.D.


J. Eian Harm, Ed.D.


New technology and innovations over the last decade have created a global economy that incorporates people communicating and making connections all over the world, twenty-four hours a day. With this continuous drive in society, there is added pressure to integrate more technology in the classroom and into the hands of students. Although there is a great push to add technology in education, studies demonstrate that teachers are reluctant to modify and change their current practice. Educational leaders, politicians, and district administration are spending valuable resources on devices to drive daily instruction in schools where teachers tend to have more of a traditional attitude and seem more reluctant when it comes to integrating technology in the classroom. Billions of dollars are being spent on technology that appears underutilized and/or used ineffectively because of a lack of teacher confidence in skills or knowledge, or personal view of importance in education. Using a quantitative approach, this study used a self-reported questionnaire to examine current teachers’ perceptions of knowledge and skills, as well as rating of value using technology for communication and collaboration, compared to their reported practice.