Publication Date


Date of Final Oral Examination (Defense)


Type of Culminating Activity


Degree Title

Doctor of Education in Educational Technology


Educational Technology

Major Advisor

Jesús Trespalacios, Ph.D.


Yu-Chang Hsu, Ph.D.


Dazhi Yang, Ph.D.


Utilizing a descriptive research design and a theoretical framework based on self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1997), this quantitative study examined self-efficacy as a factor on teachers’ technology use and integration efforts in urban K-12 classroom settings of 327 Catholic school teachers in Southern California. To measure teachers’ self-efficacy in using and integrating technology in the classroom, this study employed an online survey that included the Technology Integration Confidence Scale (TICS) version 3, an instrument developed by the researcher which is aligned to the ISTE (2017) Standards for Educators, and seven key demographic questions. Chief among these is the frequency of technology-oriented professional development (PD) training sessions teachers received.

This study’s findings revealed that, on average, participating teachers had a fair level of confidence (i.e., they are fairly but not highly confident) in both using and integrating technology (M = 3.2, SD = .73). Furthermore, the research analysis confirmed that participating teachers’ self-efficacy was a crucial factor in effectively using and integrating technology in their teaching practice based on the ISTE (2017) Standards for Educators. Accordingly, the current study established participating teachers’ level of confidence in using and applying technology through continuous PD intervention as a key implication that influenced teachers’ self-efficacy in leveraging technology for professional practice. Limitations and applicability of future studies are also addressed.