Publication Date


Date of Final Oral Examination (Defense)


Type of Culminating Activity


Degree Title

Doctor of Philosophy in Counselor Education and Supervision


Counselor Education

Major Advisor

Aida Midgett, Ed.D.

Major Advisor

Diana M. Doumas, Ph.D.


Regina Moro, Ph.D.


Claudia Peralta, Ph.D.


This dissertation includes three individual articles that examine a brief bystander bullying intervention (STAC) culturally adapted for low-income, ethnically-blended middle schools. Chapter One provides a brief introduction to the three articles that comprise this dissertation, the theoretical framework, and the rationale and purpose of this dissertation. Chapter Two includes a mixed-method study examining the development of the culturally adapted intervention. Qualitative data was used to inform the intervention adaptations. Quantitative data provides preliminary support for the cultural validity of the adapted intervention. Chapter Three includes a mixed-method study examining the appropriateness of the culturally adapted intervention. Qualitative data was collected to describe the experiences of the students who participated in the adapted intervention. Quantitative data indicates an increase in knowledge about bullying, confidence to intervene in bullying situations, and use of the STAC strategies to intervene in bullying situations. Chapter Four evaluates the effectiveness of the culturally adapted interventions on reducing bullying victimization. Quantitative data indicates a decrease in bullying victimization and bias-based bullying victimization from baseline to the 6-week follow-up. Chapter Five includes a summary of the three articles.