Publication Date


Date of Final Oral Examination (Defense)


Type of Culminating Activity


Degree Title

Doctor of Education in Educational Technology


Educational Technology

Major Advisor

Youngkyun Baek, Ph.D.


Ross Perkins, Ph.D.


Jui-long Hung, Ed.D.


This study addresses a problem of ambiguity in academic writing regarding whether learning games are underutilized in educational settings, what type of educators use learning games, and what factors are the most important in predicting educator usage. The purpose of the study is to clarify and explain the current state of educator usage of learning games in these areas in order to inform designers of educator professional development. There are two well-known frameworks that can be used to understand learning game integration by educators: the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework. This study uses a modified version of each framework designed specifically for learning games. There are also additional factors that may have a significant impact on the decision to use learning games, including (a) experience with digital games, and (b) external barriers to usage. This research has three goals: (a) investigate learning game usage, (b) evaluate which framework better predicts educator usage of learning games, and (c) examine additional factors outside of these frameworks that may influence integration. Data was gathered from currently-practicing educators using an online survey and the results were analyzed using SPSS and several statistical methods, including multiple linear regression. The results show that the TPACK framework is slightly better than TAM at predicting teacher usage, experience with games is not a statistically significant factor, and perceived barriers are significant, but their effect can be mediated by game pedagogical knowledge.