Date of Final Oral Examination (Defense)
Type of Culminating Activity
Master of Science in Kinesiology
Eric M. Martin, Ph.D.
Tyler G. Johnson, Ph.D.
Scott J. Moorcroft, Ph.D.
Introduction: An athlete’s performance is dependent on both psychological and physical factors. Perfectionism and motivation are two psychological factors that can influence performance of athletes in a positive or negative manner. The relationship between perfectionism and motivation has been studied previously, but the relationship has not been studied with sport specific measurements and the collegiate athlete population has largely been ignored. Purpose: To investigate the levels of perfectionism and motivation in collegiate Division I student-athletes and determine how the forms of perfectionism (adaptive versus maladaptive) are related to the different levels of motivation (controlled vs autonomous forms) in this population. Hypotheses: It was hypothesized that collegiate athletes would have high levels of personal standards, high perceived coach pressure, and concern about mistakes and higher levels of controlled forms of motivation than autonomous motivation. Further, it was hypothesized that the adaptive forms of perfectionism would relate to autonomous forms of motivation whereas the maladaptive forms of perfectionism would relate to controlled forms of motivation in collegiate athletes. Methods: Two hundred and sixty-four student – athletes with an average age of 19.62(1.34) were recruited from a Division I university in the Western United States. Perfectionism was assessed using the Sport – Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale -2 with its six subscales (personal standards, organization, perceived parental pressure, perceived coach pressure, concern over mistakes and doubts about actions) and motivation was assessed by using the Behavioral Regulation in Sports Questionnaire with its nine subscales (amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation, intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation and general intrinsic motivation). Statistical Analysis: Means and standard deviations were calculated to describe the sample. To test the relationship between the variables, a multivariate multiple regression (MMR) with follow up canonical correlation was conducted with the six subscales of the Sport – Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale -2 predicting the nine subscales of the Behavioral Regulation in Sports Questionnaire. Results: Student-athletes had high levels of personal standards and organization. Additionally, they had high levels of intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of motivation. Further, the MMR indicated that two functions were significant and explained 19.62% of the variance (functions 1 = 15.62%, function 2 = 4.0%). Investigation of the functions indicated that personal standards, organization, concern over mistakes, and perceived parental pressure predicted autonomous forms of motivation. Maladaptive forms of perfectionism, represented by perceived coach pressure, perceived parental pressure, doubts about actions and concern over mistakes, positively predicted controlled forms of motivation and inversely predicted autonomous forms of motivation. Conclusion: Findings imply that an environment with low coach pressure and a focus on helping athletes learn new skills without concerns for mistakes would be most beneficial for athletes. Specifically, these changes would decrease perceived coach pressure, concern over mistakes and doubts about action and hence increase the likelihood of intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of motivation. Secondly, athletes should be encouraged to hold high standards for themselves and to develop routines as these standards should lead to increased levels of intrinsic and autonomous forms of motivation.
Sengfelder, Christian, "The Relationship Between Perfectionism and Self-Determined Motivation in Collegiate Division I Athletes" (2019). Boise State University Theses and Dissertations. 1537.