Publication Date


Date of Final Oral Examination (Defense)


Type of Culminating Activity


Degree Title

Master of Science in Kinesiology



Major Advisor

Shelley Lucas, Ph.D.


Eric M. Martin, Ph.D.


Laura Jones Petranek, Ph.D.


Introduction: Researchers have examined hegemonic masculine norms and athletic identity in regard to athletes in order to understand how traits such as aggression, violence, heterosexual self-presentation, exclusivity, etc., are positively reinforced in America’s sporting culture. The expectations for aggressive sport athletes to use their bodies as weapons, play through injuries, and suppress their empathy makes transitioning into their off-field daily lives difficult. Although researchers have examined how and why college football players conform to masculine norms and an athletic identity, little is known about how these constructs do or do not manifest within the athletes of different types of sports. Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to examine college males’ retrospective sporting experiences from high school in order to better understand collision, contact, and non-contact sport athletes’ attitudes regarding masculine norms and athletic identity. Participants: The participants (n=94) were male students enrolled in Kinesiology courses at a Pacific northwestern university. Methods: Each participant completed a 15-minute survey consisting of demographic questions concerning their athletic background, a shortened version of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI-46), and the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Data Analysis: Descriptive statistics were collected regarding the participants’ age, year in school, ethnicity, guardians’ education level, and high school sport experience. Two MANOVAs were conducted to examine the connections, if any, between the type of sport college males excelled at most during their high school years and the CMNI-46 and the AIMS. If the MANOVA was significant, a follow-up univariate ANOVA was conducted. Lastly, a bivariate correlation was conducted for all the subscales of the two instruments. Results: The MANOVA investigating sport type differences for the CMNI-46 was statistically significant with follow-up univariate ANOVAs indicating that collision athletes were more violent than contact athletes. Discussion: This finding offers some understanding of the culture surrounding collision sports and its influence on the athletes participating.