Publication Date


Date of Final Oral Examination (Defense)


Type of Culminating Activity


Degree Title

Master of Science in Kinesiology, Biophysical Studies



Major Advisor

Tyler N. Brown, Ph.D.


Clare K. Fitzpatrick, Ph.D.


Shawn R. Simonson, Ed.D.


Introduction: Musculoskeletal injuries are ever-increasing in military personnel, particularly females. These musculoskeletal injuries are attributed to adaptations in lower limb biomechanics while performing routine military tasks, such as a single-leg cut, with the addition of body borne load. However, it is unknown if females and males exhibit similar lower limb biomechanics with the addition of body borne load during these tasks. This study sought to compare the lower limb biomechanical adaptations exhibited by females and males performing a single-leg cut with body borne load. Methods: Eleven females and 17 males had lower limb biomechanics quantified during a single-leg cut with four body borne load conditions (20, 25, 30 and 35 kg). Each participant performed five successful cuts off each limb (dominant and non-dominant). Statistical Analysis: For analysis, initial contact (IC) and peak stance (PS) hip, knee and ankle 3D rotations and PS moments, and peak proximal tibial shear were calculated. Each variable was submitted to a RM ANOVA to test main and interaction effects of sex (male, female), load (20, 25, 30 and 35 kg), and limb dominance (dominant vs. non-dominant). Results: Body borne load increased peak proximal anterior tibial shear force (p = 0.011). However, females exhibited significantly greater proximal tibial shear with the 25 kg configuration compared to the 20 kg configuration (p = 0.028), while males exhibited greater peak proximal tibial shear force with 35 kg configuration compared to 20 kg (p = 0.04) and 25 (p = 0.011) kg configurations. During the cut, females exhibited significantly greater IC and PS hip adduction angle (p = 0.016 and p = 0.015), and PS hip adduction (p < 0.001) and knee external rotation (p = 0.004) moments compared to males. Males exhibited significantly greater PS hip flexion moment (p = 0.041) and knee flexion moment – but only with the 25 kg (p = 0.04) and 30 kg (p = 0.022) load configurations – compared to females. Conclusion: The addition of body borne load increases risk of musculoskeletal injury for military personnel performing a single-leg cut. Females exhibited hip and knee biomechanics reported to increase dynamic valgus loading of the knee and may have a greater risk of musculoskeletal injury during the single-leg cut compared to their male counterparts.