The Effects of Velocity, Occlusion and Gender on Coincidence of Anticipation

Publication Date


Type of Culminating Activity


Degree Title

Master of Science in Exercise and Sport Studies



Major Advisor

Bill Kozar


Ross E. Vaughn


John McChesney


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of velocity, occlusion and gender on coincidence of anticipation ability. Early studies Slater-Hammel (1955), Gottsdanker (1952,a & 1952,b) and Ellingstad (1967) were concerned with movement estimation/anticipation ability with concealment/occlusion effects. However, motor behavior trends shifted research away from this paradigm that was once considered to need further investigation. More recent research by Dunham Jr. and Reeve (1990), Brady (1996),and Petrakis (1985) in coincidence of anticipation ability have focused on velocity, age, gender, activity and experience. This study combined this paradigm with modern methodologies and compared results to both early and recent studies. Fifty subjects were tested; 25 men, M=24.07 yrs. and 25 women, M=22.61 yrs.. The apparatus used was a Bassin Anticipation timer with a length of 4.24 Meters. The task involved tracking a visual stimulus down the timer toward the subject and depressing a stop button when the stimulus reached a target location. Subjects attempted this task while varying two sets of independent variables. The first, stimulus velocity, had two variables: 4mph and 8mph. The second, occlusion distance, had three variables: no occlusion,¼ track length and ½ track length. These occlusions blocked the visual stimulus from the subject beginning at the target location and extending away from the subject the prescribed distance. Subjects continued to anticipate the arrival of the stimulus under occluded conditions as if no occlusion were present. Six test conditions were created when combining the above independent variables. 20 recorded trails were taken for each condition. Conditions were randomized. Subject performance was measured by absolute, constant and variable error. A 2-within 1-between repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), [(2) x velocity, (3) x occlusion, (2) x gender] was used to analyze recorded data. Statistical significance was determined at the .05 level using Greenhouse-Geisser (1959) adjusted p-values. Absolute error showed significance in the velocity by occlusion interaction, F (2,96) = 8.94, p<.005. Indicating that with an increase in occlusion a resultant increase in absolute error is seen through velocities. Constant error (C.E) was significant in the velocity by occlusion interaction, F (2,96) = 19.44, p < .0001. Indicating that with an increase in occlusion a resultant increase in constant error “bias” is seen through velocities. The 4mph velocity showed a positive C.E. trend while 8mph showed negative C.E. trend. The absolute difference between 4mph and 8mph at the same occlusion distance became greater as the occlusion distanced increased. Absolute error showed significance in the velocity by occlusion interaction, F (2,96) = 14.94, p < .0001. Indicating that with an increase in occlusion there is a resultant increase in variability through velocity. It was shown that with an increase in velocity there are resulted an increase in accuracy. Also, increases in occlusion distance increased error scores. Gender was not shown to be a significant factor in coincidence of anticipation ability.

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