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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a teacher-implemented tier two behavior intervention and differential effects based on function of student problem behavior. The participants were 36 public elementary school students who were nominated for additional behavior support beyond universal School-wide Positive Behavior Support. The intervention provided was Check-In/Check-Out, a tier two intervention using direct behavior ratings to increase structure and feedback to the student’s environment. Before and after implementation of the intervention, the authors assessed the students’ function of behavior, levels of problem behavior, prosocial behavior, and rate of behavioral incidents. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects for all students in prosocial behavior and behavioral incidents, but not problem behavior. An analysis of interaction effects indicated statistically significant differences in response to intervention based on function of problem behavior. Results are discussed in terms of considering function of problem behavior in selecting tier two interventions and implementing a three tier response to intervention model.

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The final, definitive version of this document can be found online at Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(2), 2009, SAGE Publications, Inc., All rights reserved. doi: 10.1177/1098300708319127).