Document Type


Publication Date



This study describes the initial psychometric evaluation of an Understanding Procedures observation rubric. The instrument is intended to provide feedback to teachers working in mathematics intervention settings. The rubric translates the research base from mathematics education and special education into practice in the form of specific items and descriptors of performance levels. A sample of 16 intervention teachers across three states provided three videos each of their instruction of students in mathematics intervention classes. Ten external raters evaluated the videos. We analyze the ratings using many-facet Rasch measurement. Analyses of the teacher, item, rater, and lesson facets show good psychometric quality for the instrument. Implications for research and professional development are discussed.

Copyright Statement

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article:

Crawford, A.L., Johnson, E.S., Zheng, Y.Z., & Moylan, L.A. (2020). Developing an Understanding Procedures Observation Rubric for Mathematics Intervention Teachers. School Science and Mathematics, 120(3), 153-164.

which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.