This study investigated the effects of adding individualized, function-based support to the well-documented early intervention, First Step to Success. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was applied across three, K-1 students who did not respond to standard First Step to Success procedures. A functional behavioral assessment and individualized function-based support plan was added to the First Step protocol. The multiple baseline analysis documented an effect between adding individualized, function-based supports to the standard First Step program and both (a) a decrease in problem behavior and (b) an increase in academic engagement. Implications of the results are provided for the design of school-based behavior support, implementation of First Step to Success, and applications of manualized interventions.
The final, definitive version of this paper has been published in Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(1), 2009. SAGE Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1177/1098300708319125
Carter, Deborah and Horner, Robert H.. (2009). "Adding Function-Based Behavioral Support to First Step to Success: Integrating Individualized and Manualized Practices". Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(1), 22-34.