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This study investigated the effects of adding individualized, function-based support to the well-documented early intervention, First Step to Success. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was applied across three, K-1 students who did not respond to standard First Step to Success procedures. A functional behavioral assessment and individualized function-based support plan was added to the First Step protocol. The multiple baseline analysis documented an effect between adding individualized, function-based supports to the standard First Step program and both (a) a decrease in problem behavior and (b) an increase in academic engagement. Implications of the results are provided for the design of school-based behavior support, implementation of First Step to Success, and applications of manualized interventions.

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The final, definitive version of this paper has been published in Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(1), 2009. SAGE Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1177/1098300708319125