Tuning the Properties of ZnO, Hematite, and Ag Nanoparticles by Adjusting the Surface Charge

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Nanomaterials have become a central focus of scientific research and technological development over the last decade due to their broad applications in a variety of physicochemical and biological fields, including lasers,[1] solar cells,[2] catalysts,[3] sensors,[4–6] biological labels,[7] drug delivery,[8,9] and cancer therapy.[10–13] Controlling the size and/or shape of nanoparticles (NPs) has been widely used to modify and improve NP properties for designated applications.[1,6,11,14–19] Recently, it has been found that adjusting the surface charge (SC) can be a effective method to modify the cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and specificity of targeting of NPs.[9,10,12,20–22] Electrons and/or other electrical charges play an essential role in many key material properties, such as electrostatic interactions, photoluminescence (PL), magnetism, plasmon properties, chemical bonds, and related chemical properties.