Document Type


Publication Date



We measured normal and friction forces simultaneously using a recently developed cantilever-based optical interfacial force microscope (COIFM) technique for studies of interfacial structures and mechanical properties of nanoscale materials. We derived how the forces can be incorporated into the detection signal using the classical Euler equation for beams. A lateral modulation with the amplitude of one nanometers was applied to create the friction forces between tip and sample. We demonstrated its capability by measuring normal and friction forces of interfacial water at the molecular scale over all distance ranges.

Copyright Statement

This is an author-produced, peer-reviewed version of this article. The final, definitive version of this document can be found online at Review of Scientific Instruments, published by American Institute of Physics. Copyright restrictions may apply. DOI: 10.1063/1.3593106

Included in

Physics Commons