Liposomes are spherical-shaped vesicles that enclose an aqueous milieu surrounded by bilayer or multilayer membranes formed by self-assembly of lipid molecules. They are intensively exploited as either model membranes for fundamental studies or as vehicles for delivery of active substances in vivo and in vitro. Irrespective of the method adopted for production of loaded liposomes, obtaining the final purified product is often achieved by employing multiple, time consuming steps. To alleviate this problem, we propose a simplified approach for concomitant production and purification of loaded liposomes by exploiting the Electrodialysis-Driven Depletion of charged molecules from solutions. Our investigations show that electrically-driven migration of charged detergent and dye molecules from solutions that include natural or synthetic lipid mixtures leads to rapid self-assembly of loaded, purified liposomes, as inferred from microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy assessments. In addition, the same procedure was successfully applied for incorporating PEGylated lipids into the membranes for the purpose of enabling long-circulation times needed for potential in vivo applications. Dynamic Light Scattering analyses and comparison of electrically-formed liposomes with liposomes produced by sonication or extrusion suggest potential use for numerous in vitro and in vivo applications.
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Abatchev, Gamid; Bogard, Andrew; Hutchinson, Zoe; Ward, Jason; and Fologea, Daniel. (2021). "Rapid Production and Purification of Dye-Loaded Liposomes by Electrodialysis-Driven Depletion". Membranes, 11(6), 417, . https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11060417