An Exploratory Study of Musicians’ Self-Efficacy to Maintain Practice Schedules

Document Type


Publication Date

Winter 2014




The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate musicians’ self-efficacy to maintain practice schedules in the face of adverse situations and conditions. Respondents (N = 159) were graduate student musicians, sampled from a national music organization in the United States. They completed the Self-Efficacy to Maintain Practice Schedules Scale (SEMPSS), a survey instrument designed by the researchers. The scale demonstrated high internal consistency (α = .93) and was found to measure a single latent construct through factor analysis. Among different types of adversity, respondents reported that internal situations provided more challenge to maintaining a practice schedule than environmental or social situations. Music-performance majors reported significantly higher levels of self-efficacy to maintain practice schedules than nonperformance majors, but no significant differences were found between instrumentalists and vocalists in the sample. Hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that age, number of days practiced per week, and hours of practice per week significantly predicted musicians’ self-efficacy to maintain a practice schedule in adverse situations.