Multiphase layered transition metal oxides (LTMOs) for sodium ion battery (SIB) positive electrodes with phase interfaces across multiple length scales are a promising avenue toward practical, high-performance SIBs. Combinations of phases can complement each other's strengths and mitigate their weaknesses if their interfaces are carefully controlled. Intra- and interparticle phase interactions from nanoscale to macroscale must be carefully tuned to generate distinct effects on properties and performance. An informed design strategy must be paired with relevant synthesis techniques and complemented by spatially resolved characterization tools to manipulate different length scales and interfaces. This review examines the design, synthesis, and characterization strategies that have been demonstrated for the preparation of heterogeneous, multiphasic LTMOs with phase interfaces across varied length scales.
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Gabriel, Eric; Hou, Dewen; Lee, Eungje; and Xiong, Hui. (2022). "Multiphase Layered Transition Metal Oxide Positive Electrodes for Sodium Ion Batteries". Energy Science & Engineering, 10(5), 1672-1705. https://doi.org/10.1002/ese3.1128