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The local actuation of a magnetic shape memory (MSM) element as used in an MSM micropump is considered. This paper presents the difference between an electromagnetic driver and a driver that uses a rotating permanent magnet. For the magnetic field energy of the permanent magnetic drive, the element takes in a significant stray field. In a particular case, energy reduction was 12.7 mJ. For an electromagnetic drive with an identical size of the MSM element, the total magnetic field energy created by the system was 2.28 mJ. Attempts to experimentally nucleate twins in an MSM element by energizing an electromagnetic drive failed even though the local magnetic field exceeded the magnetic switching field. The energy variation is an order of magnitude smaller for the electromagnetic drive, and it does not generate the necessary driving force. It was assumed in previous work that the so-called magnetic switching field presents a sufficient requirement to nucleate a twin and, thus, to locally actuate an MSM element. Here, we show that the total magnetic field energy available to the MSM element presents another requirement.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.