Systematic Trends of Transformation Temperatures and Crystal Structure of Ni–Mn–Ga–Fe–Cu Alloys

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Here we report a systematic research on effects of Fe and Cu upon properties relevant for the magnetic shape memory effect of Ni–Mn–Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Fe and Cu were identified as elements with potential synergism to increase the martensite transformation temperature of Ni–Mn–Ga magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys. Eighteen Ni–Mn–Ga–Fe–Cu alloys with different systematic trends in substituting the ternary elements with Cu and Fe have been investigated. We found a method to describe the effectiveness of Ni, Mn, and Cu upon raising the martensitic transformation temperature, lowering the saturation magnetization, and varying the Curie temperature. We find the martensite transformation temperature most influenced by the Ni content, followed by Mn, with a smaller effect of Cu. The saturation magnetization decreases with similar coefficients for Mn and Cu alloying. The Curie temperature monotonously decreases with Mn, but not Cu. The 10M martensite structure is stable for the composition Ni46.5Mn25+XGa25−XYFe3.5CuY with X and Y range of 0–5.7, and 0.8–3.0. Used in combination with the total e/a, the elemental e/a-ratio gives some insight into the complex behavior of quinary MSM alloys and is a useful method of analyzing MSM alloys for improved functional properties.


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