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P2-structured Na0.67Ni0.33Mn0.67O2 (PNNMO) is a promising Na-ion battery cathode material, but its rapid capacity decay during cycling remains a hurdle. Li doping in layered transition-metal oxide (TMO) cathode materials is known to enhance their electrochemical properties. Nevertheless, the influence of Li at different locations in the structure has not been investigated. Here, the crystallographic role and electrochemical impact of lithium on different sites in PNNMO is investigated in LixNa0.67–yNi0.33Mn0.67O2+δ (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.2, y = 0, 0.1). Lithium occupancy on prismatic Na sites is promoted in Na-deficient (Na < 0.67) PNNMO, evidenced by ex situ and operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and 7Li solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Partial substitution of Na with Li leads to enhanced stability and slightly increased specific capacity compared to PNNMO. In contrast, when lithium is located primarily on octahedral TM sites, capacity is increased but at the cost of stability.


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This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes. This document was originally published in Chemistry of Materials by the American Chemical Society. Copyright restrictions may apply.