Twinning Stress of Type I and Type II Deformation Twins

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Recent reports on highly mobile type II twin boundaries challenge the established understanding of deformation twinning and motivate this study. We consider the motion of twin boundaries through the nucleation and growth of disconnection loops and develop a mechanism-based model for twin boundary motion in the framework of isotropic linear elasticity. While such mechanisms are well established for type I and compound twins, we demonstrate based on the elastic properties of crystals that type II twin boundaries propagate in a similar way. Nucleation of a type I twinning disconnection loop occurs in a discrete manner. In contrast, nucleation of a type II twinning disconnection loop occurs gradually with increasing Burgers vector. The gradual nucleation of a type II disconnection loop accounts for the higher mobility of type II twin boundaries compared with type I twin boundaries. We consider the homogeneous nucleation of a disconnection loop, which is adequate for twinning in shape memory alloys with a low-symmetry crystal lattice. For the magnetic shape memory alloy Ni–Mn-Ga, the model predicts twinning stresses of 0.33 MPa for type II twinning and 4.7 MPa for type I twinning. Over a wide temperature range, the twinning stress depends on temperature only through the temperature dependence of the elastic constants, in agreement with experimental results.