Nitrogen and Phosphorus Codoped Porous Carbon Framework as Anode Material for High Rate Lithium-Ion Batteries

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Slow kinetics and low specific capacity of graphite anode significantly limit its applications in the rapidly developing lithium-ion battery (LIB) markets. Herein, we report a carbon framework anode with ultrafast rate and cycling stability for LIBs by nitrogen and phosphorus doping. The electrode structure is constructed of a 3D framework built from 2D heteroatom-doped graphene layers via pyrolysis of self-assembled supramolecular aggregates. The synergistic effect from the nanostructured 3D framework and chemical doping (i.e., N- and P-doping) enables fast kinetics in charge storage and transport. A high reversible capacity of 946 mAh g–1 is delivered at a current rate of 0.5 A g–1, and excellent rate capability (e.g., a capacity of 595 mAh g–1 at 10 A g–1) of the electrode is shown. Moreover, a moderate surface area from the 3D porous structure contributes to a relatively high initial Coulombic efficiency of 74%, compared to other graphene-based anode materials. The electrode also demonstrates excellent cycling stability at a current rate of 2 A g-1 for 2000 cycles. The synthetic strategy proposed here is highly efficient and green, which can provide guidance for large-scale controllable fabrication of carbon-based anode materials.