Efficiency of Energy Harvesting in Ni–Mn–Ga Shape Memory Alloys
Many researchers have reported on the voltage and power generated while energy harvesting using Ni–Mn–Ga shape memory alloys; few researchers report on the power conversion efficiency of energy harvesting. We measured the magneto-mechanical behavior and energy harvesting of Ni–Mn–Ga shape memory alloys to quantify the efficiency of energy harvesting using the inverse magneto-plastic effect. At low frequencies, less than 150 Hz, the power conversion efficiency is less than 0.1%. Power conversion efficiency increases with (i) increasing actuation frequency, (ii) increasing actuation stroke, and (iii) decreasing twinning stress. Extrapolating the results of low-frequency experiments to the kHz actuation regime yields a power conversion factor of about 20% for 3 kHz actuation frequency, 7% actuation strain, and 0.05 MPa twinning stress.
Lindquist, Paul; Hobza, Tony; Patrick, Charles; and Müllner, Peter. (2018). "Efficiency of Energy Harvesting in Ni–Mn–Ga Shape Memory Alloys". Shape Memory and Superelasticity, 4(1), 93-101.