Effect of Pore Architecture on Magnetic-Field-Induced Strain in Polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga

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Monocrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga alloys show magnetic-field-induced strains (MFIS) of up to 10% as a result of reversible twinning; by contrast, polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga shows near-zero MFIS due to strain incompatibilities at grain boundaries inhibiting twinning. Recently, we showed that porous polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga exhibits a small, but non-zero, MFIS value of 0.12% due to reduction of these incompatibilities by the porosity. Here, we study the effect of pore architecture on MFIS for polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga foams. Foams with a combination of large (550 μm) and small (80 μm) pores are fabricated by the replication method and exhibit thinner nodes and struts compared to foam containing only large (430 μm) pores. When magnetically cycled, both types of foams exhibit repeatable MFIS of 0.24–0.28% without bias stress. As the cycle number increases from a few tens to a few thousands, the MFIS drops due to damage accumulation. The rate of MFIS decrease is lower in the dual-pore foam, as expected from reduced constraints on the twin boundary motion, since twins span the whole width of the thinner nodes and struts.