Low-Loss Dielectric Ceramic Materials and Their Properties

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In addition to the constant demand of low-loss dielectric materials for wireless telecommunication, the recent progress in the Internet of Things (IoT), the Tactile Internet (fifth generation wireless systems), the Industrial Internet, satellite broadcasting and intelligent transport systems (ITS) has put more pressure on their development with modern component fabrication techniques. Oxide ceramics are critical for these applications, and a full understanding of their crystal chemistry is fundamental for future development. Properties of microwave ceramics depend on several parameters including their composition, the purity of starting materials, processing conditions and their ultimate densification/porosity. In this review the data for all reported low-loss microwave dielectric ceramic materials are collected and tabulated. The table of these materials gives the relative permittivity, quality factor, temperature variation of the resonant frequency, crystal structure, sintering temperature, measurement frequency and references. In addition, the methods commonly employed for measuring the microwave dielectric properties, important from the applications point of view, factors affecting the dielectric loss, methods to tailor the dielectric properties and materials for future applications, are briefly described. The data will be very useful for scientists, industrialists, engineers and students working on current and emerging applications of wireless communications.